Pre-treatment of grey fabric, then thorough coloration of treated fabric and finally the finishing process completes the wet processing of textiles. In this finishing stage, we can impart desirable properties to the substrate. Chemical finishing in textile plays an important role to yield asthetic as well as functional properties to the goods.
Chemical finishing in textile involves the addition of chemicals to textile to achieve desired result. Typically, the appearance of fabric remains unchanged after chemical finishing. But Mechanical or Dry finish uses mainly physical means to change fabric properties and usually alters the fabric appearance as well.
Mechanical finishing includes calendering, emersing, compressive shrinkage, raising, brushing, shearing etc. Often mechanical and chemical finishing overlap. Some mechanical finishes need chemical application. So, chemical finish plays an important role in textile finishing field.
In this article, we will briefly discuss about chemical finishing.
General requirements of chemical finishing in textile
There are some basic requirements of chemical finishing in textiles. They are divided in two effects: Primary effect and secondary effect. Here’s they are:
Primary effects of finishing
High effectiveness at lower expenditure
Adapt according to customer choice and ease of use
Desired secondary effects of finishing
The finish must be applicable on all types of fibers and substrate form like yarn, woven or knitted structure, garment or apparel or non-woven goods
Garments must posses high performance property when subjected to washing or dry cleaning
Never compromise with the quality like hand feel, abrasion resistance, tear or tensile strength etc
Undyed grey fabrics should not face any yellowing
No impairment in colorfastness is required
Finishes must not interact with the color of the textile goods
Handling should be safe and easy
Non-flammable finish is required
Finishes must be accomplished following standard method and equipment at lower costing
Up on storage, finishes must exhibit high stability whatever the condition (temperature, stress etc) is.
Optimum application of finishes either on the surface or inside of the fabric is a must
The finish must be synergistic or should have compatibility with the other finishes
Easy cover up of faults if occurred such as stain removal
Absence of volatile component
Importance of chemical finishing in textile
Chemical finishing in textile plays an important role but the recent trend to “High Tech” product adds a great popularity to it.
With the increase of high performance textiles, the popularity of chemical finishing has also increased.
The chemicals and auxiliaries that are utilized in a year is about one-tenth of the world’s fiber production
About 6 million tons of chemicals are consumed for 60 million tons of fiber
The consumption of chemicals in finishing covers 40% of total textile auxiliaries.
Within the textile finishing group, the product breakdown, based on TEGEWA, is given as a survey in the following table.
In terms of value, the repellent group is the leader with the highest ratio of cost per amount.
This reflects the relatively high cost of the fluorochemical subgroup of repellents.
Source: Market Research Future
Importance of the finishing product groups in order
Finishing product group
Soft handle products based on: silicones, including elastomeric, cationics, non-ionics, without silicones anionics
Repellents based on: Fluorocarbons, paraffins, silicones
Products for coating, laminating, fiber and thread bonding
Products for easy care and permanent press finishes
Antimicrobial products, including protection from germs
Antistatic agents including carpet finishing
Products for soil-release, remainder, including brighteners, products for sewing thread preparation, anti-felting of wool, carpet back-coating, hydrophilation, delustering and brightening, foaming of finishes
Different types of chemical finishing in textile
Flame Retardency finish
Water Repellency finish https://www.britannica.com/topic/water-repellent-fabric
Silicon treatment for hydrophobic effect
Fluoro chemicals for soil release & soil resistance
Certain phosphorous & nitrogen compounds for flame retardant
Finish with non-slip agents
Wrinkle free or crease resistant finish
To Wrap Up!
Chemical finishing, an important field for textile finishing covers a broad market share. In our subsequent articles, we will know more about it.
Salma Hasin the author of this site completed her BSc. in Textile Engineering (Wet Processing Engineering). She wants to share her knowledge to help students in their studies and businessman & entrepreneurs in their businesses in making wise decisions fast.