Yarn is a collective term of linear assembles of fibers or filaments that are twisted together to impart strength or they can laid together to form a continuous strand that is suitable to manufacture fabric.
There are different types of yarns available. In this content, many of the important variants are discussed. Find it below!
Types of Yarns
Table of Contents
Yarn can be classified into two categories: Yarns can be classified in many ways. There are different types of yarns available. Broadly yarn can be classified into two categories:
A brief discussion on these two topic is given below!
A staple-spun yarn is a linear assembly of fibers. Usually the fibers are held together by the insertion of twist, to form a continuous strand that is smaller in cross-section but of a particular specified length.
Fabrics are produced from yarns by different techniques like weaving, knitting etc. Staple yarns can be sub-divided into different categories based on their length, no. of ply, twist direction, spinning method etc. We will discuss each of them below.
Staple-spun yarn can be classified into two categories according to their length:
Short staple yarn: A staple fiber has a length of between 10 and 500mm. Short staple fiber has a maximum length of 60mm (cotton fiber is a short staple at about 25–45mm).
Long staple yarn: Long staple fiber has a length of more than 60mm (wool fiber is a long staple at about 60–150mm).
According to twist direction:
S twist yarn
If twisted in clockwise direction, then the yarn is called S twist yarn. The inclination angle provides it an English alphabetic S like look.
Z twist yarn
If twisted in anti-clockwise direction, then the yarn is called Z twist yarn. The inclination angle provides it an English alphabetic Z like look.
Zero twist yarn
By wrapping of the soluble filament with untwisted staple fibers zero twist or twist less yarn is produced. For wrapping purpose, hot water soluble filaments are required.
After weaving, these filaments are softened in hot water throughout processing. Thus twist less figure is achieved, therefore, it is called zero twist yarn.
The fibers are held together by adhesives, not by the twist, and are often laid over a continuous filament core.
Filament yarn is a collective form of twisted or without twisted strands of filaments. Here, each of the filaments runs the complete length of yarn. 50-100 filaments may be present in the multifilament.
Filament yarns are of two types:
Types of Yarns according to process sequences of manufacturing:
Carded yarns are produced from fibers that are only carded. These fibers are not combed. Carded yarn is spun in ring spinning machine. They have dirt or seed coats too. Also they have short staple fibers.
Both carding and combing process are carried out for combed yarn. Normally it is being manufactured by ring spinning system. Beyond carding, combing is an additional process. Additional short fibers, trash, neps are removed in this process.
Again, fibers are arranged in a highly parallel order. This enables to produce a high quality yarn that has excellent strength and evenness. For good quality fine yarns, combing process is actually carried out.
Types of Yarns according to formation of yarn or system of twist insertion:
This is the most widely used method of staple-fiber yarn production. The fibers are twisted around each other to give strength to the yarn.
By ring spinning machine ring spun yarn is formed. A combination of ring and traveler is used to insert twist in the yarn. Ring yarns can be coarse or fine.
Opening, blending, carding, carding, drawing, simplex, ring spinning etc processes are successively carried out for ring yarn.
Types of ring yarn:
In rotor spinning machine rotor yarn is formed by the twisting of rotor. Short fibers can also be used to produce this fiber. Rotor yarn is comparatively coarse. They are called open end yarn also.
Vortex is also an open end yarn that is manufactured in vortex spinning machine. The fineness of vortex yarn is coarse to medium fine.
Air jet yarn is a false twist or zero twist yarn. Like vortex and rotor yarn, air-jet is also an open end yarn. Air-jet yarns are manufactured in air-jet spinning machine.
Types of Yarns according to use:
If the yarn is manufactured to produce woven cloth then it is called woven yarn. According to the direction woven yarn is categorized into two sub-sections like warp and weft.
The yarns of lengthwise direction are called warp yarns. Whereas if the yarns are used in the widthwise direction, they are called weft yarns. Warp yarns are stronger than wefts because they have to withstand the weaving tension.
Types of woven yarn:
The yarns produced for knitting purpose are called knitted yarns. They are soft and low twisted yarns.
Types of yarns according to no. of strand:
Single yarns are made from single filament or from group of staple or filament fibers. The fibers are twisted together to form desirable single yarn.
20s Ne, 30s Ne, 40/1 ne etc are the example count of single yarn. Single yarns cover mono filament, multifilament and also spun yarns.
By twisting together two or more single yarns, ply yarns are made. Each part of the yarn is called a ply. Yarn can be two, three or four plied. Sewing threads are ply yarns.
By twisting together plied yarns, cord yarns are produced. They are used for industrial purpose. They are seldom used in apparels.
Types of yarns according to fiber:
Single fiber yarn
Single fibers are pure form of fiber. There is no mixture of other fibers. The yarn is made up of 100% single fiber. For example: 100% cotton, 100% polyester, 100% jute yarn etc.
Multi-fiber or blended yarn
Blended yarn is a misture of two or more fibers. For example: P/C, T/C, CVC etc.
P/C or T/C: This is Polyester-Cotton or Terelyne-Cotton. Yarn that is produced by the mixture of polyester and cotton fibers is called T/C or P/C blend.
The maximum part of this yarn is polyester part. The yarn has more than 50% polyester fiber. The rest part is cotton.
CVC (Chief Value Cotton): CVC is a blended yarn that has more percentage of cotton fiber as compared to that of polyester part. For example: Polyester: Cotton – 70:30 or Polyester: Cotton – 60:40
Special Types of Yarns
Rarely used in entire apparel except in drapery applications
Used for decorative purposes
By a programmed difference in twist level or input rate in one or more components during the plying of the yarns a novelty effect can be achieved.
This results in differential bending or wrapping between the components or in segments of buckled yarn that are permanently entangled in the composite yarn structure.
Types of novelty yarns:
They may be of monofilament fibers or ply yarns.
Two processes are commonly used to produce metallic yarns. The laminating process seals a layer of aluminum between two layers of acetate or polyester film, which is then cut into strips for yarns.
The film may be transparent, so the aluminum foil shows through, or the film and/or the adhesive may be colored before the laminating process.
The metallizing process vaporizes the aluminum at high pressure and deposits it on the polyester film.
Fancy yarns can be sub-divided into the below categories:
Fancy yarns are formed by the irregular plying of staple fiber or continuous filaments.
They are characterized by the presence of abrupt and periodic effects.
The periodicity of these effects may be irregular or constant.
Marl the simplest among the fancy yarns
By twisting two different-colored yarns in a doubling process marl yarn is made.
It is different in texture from normal double yarn.
The alteration of colors is the primary effect of marl yarn as well as demonstrating the plain structure, which is that of an ordinary folded yarn.
They can create discreet pinstripes in men’s suiting or can produce a subtly and irregularly patterned knitted fabric with a relatively simple fabric construction.
They may also be used to provide a Lurex or other metallic yarn with strong support, while at the same time creating a more subtle effect.
SPIRAL OR CORKSCREW YARN
A spiral or corkscrew yarn is a plied yarn
It displays a characteristic of smooth spiraling of one component around the other.
Its construction is straightforward, except in the differing lengths of the two yarns involved
It is very similar to the structure of a marl yarn.
A gimp yarn is a compound yarn
It consists of a twisted core with an effect yarn wrapped around it
This is done to yield a wavy projections on its surface.
The yarn is produced in two stages as a binder yarn is needed to give stability to the structure.
Two yarns are plied together which must be of widely varied count
Thick around thin, and again thin around thick are bound to form gimp yarn.
A coarse single yarn or roving is folded with a fine yarn or filament of contrasting color to produce diamond yarn.
To produce this yarn S-twist is used.
A similar fine yarn using Z-twist is the cabled with this S-twisted yarn. Multifold ‘cabled’ yarns may be made by extending and varying this technique to produce a wide range of effects.
Some compression effect is shown upon the thick yarn from the thin ones in the true diamond yarn.
Diamond yarn is very useful to create the subtle effects of color and texture, particularly in relatively simple fabric structures.
This type of yarn is characterized by tight loops projecting from the body of the yarn at fairly regular intervals.
Some of these yarns are made by air-jet texturing but most are of three-ply construction. The three components of the yarn are the core, the effect and the tie, or binder.
The effect yarn is wrapped in loops around a core or base yarn, and then the third ply, or binder, is wrapped over the effect ply in order to hold the loops in place.
The individual plies may be filament or spun yarns. The characteristics of these yarns determine the ultimate design effect.
A loop yarn consists of a core with an effect yarn wrapped around it.
It is being overfed to produce a nearly circular projection on its surface.
The following figure is simplified by showing the core as two straight bars. In reality, the core always consists of two yarns twisted together, which entraps the effect yarn.
As a general rule, four yarns are involved in the construction. Two of these form the core or ground yarns.
The effect yarn(s) are formed with overfeed of about 200% or more. It is important for these to be of the correct type and of good quality.
To produce this low twist, pliable yarn is required.
A similar twisted core-to-loop structure
A snarl yarn displays ‘snarls’ or ‘twists’ projecting from the core
It is produced by similar method to the loop yarn, but uses a lively, high-twist yarn and a somewhat greater degree of overfeed as the effect yarn.
By careful control of the details of overfeed and spinning tension, and by the level of twist in the effect yarn a snarl of required size and frequency is achieved.
Contains prominent bunches of one or more of its component threads
They are arranged at regular or irregular intervals along its length
To produce a desired effect of discontinuity slubs are deliberately formed.
Slubs are thick places in the yarn
They take very gradual change in thickening at the thickest point of yarn.
Alternatively, a slub may be three or four times the thickness of the base yarn
This increase in thickness may be accomplished within a short length of yarn.
A core of parallel fibers bound together by wrapper fibers yields fasciated yarn
They are staple fiber
Air-jet yarns are structured in this way. Yarns produced by the hollow spindle method are also frequently described as fasciated yarn. This is because of the binder that is applied to an essentially twistless core of parallel fibers.
Various processes including braiding, warp knitting and weft knitting can be used for making of tape yarn.
In recent years, these materials have become better known, especially in fashion knitwear.
It is also possible to use narrow woven ribbons, narrow tapes of nonwoven material, or slit film in the same way.
In a miniature circular weft knitting process chainette yarn is produced.
A ring of between 6 and 20 needles and a filament yarn is often used for this.
The process has been used on a small scale for many years and is now used extensively in fashion knitwear.
A woven leno fabric structure is slit into narrow and warp-wise strips to serve as chenille yarn.
These are pile yarns
They have a uniform pile height throughout the length of the yarn or may vary in length to produce a yarn of irregular dimensions.
Chenille yarns are used in furnishings and apparel.
Very specialized machinery is required to produce this yarn. For this reason, these yarns are usually woven on a loom.
The effect yarn forms the warp, which is bound by a weft thread. The weft thread is spaced out at a distance of twice the required length of pile. The warp is then cut halfway between each weft thread.
These yarns are not produced by spinning
They consist of finely knitted tubes, pressed flat to resemble ribbon or tape. The ribbons are usually soft, shiny and silky.
They are also known as compound yarns
They consist of at least two threads. One forms the core of the composite yarn, and the other strand forms the sheath component.
One thread is a staple-fiber yarn and other a filament yarn.
Compound yarns are even in diameter, smooth and available in the same count range as spun and filament yarns.
They have a core completely covered by fiber or another yarn.
The core might be an elastomeric yarn, such as rubber or Spandex, or other yarns, such as polyester or nylon.
Covered yarns may have either a single or double covering. The second covering is usually twisted in the opposite direction to the first.
Industrial design requires special end-use yarns
The yarns should have precise functional features. These yarns are engineered for performance under specified conditions.
The industrial yarns do not have the optical and physical properties of yarns used for apparel and home-furnishing applications.
Examples are tyre cord, asbestos and glass yarns, twine, rubber or elastic threads, core-spun yarns, wire yarn, sewing thread, heavy monofilaments and split-film yarns
Rubber or elastic core
They includes staple or continuous-filament yarn
The yarns may have ordinary extensibility but they have a remarkably high level of loftiness or fullness.
These yarns preserve bulkiness in both relaxed and stressed situations.
High covering power with lesser weight is possible in fabrics made of high-bulk yarns.
Continuous filament (Taslan)
Stretch yarns are preset textured yarns for high extensibility.
Some can be stretched up to even three or four times their relaxed length but some can stretched up to once or twice of their relaxed length.
These yarns are highly extensible and highly elastic.
By texturizing thermoplastic continuous-filament yarns most of the stretch yarns are produced.
This results in reasonably good nonlinearity or crimp in the individual filaments. The nonlinear structure of the filaments is heat-set but not entangled as in the case of the high-bulk yarns.
Salma Hasin Shila, the author of this site completed her BSc. in Textile Engineering (Wet Processing Engineering) from Bangladesh University of Textiles www.butex.edu.bd (BUTEX). She has a passion for textile technology and love to write about it. She wants to share her knowledge to help the students in their studies and businessman & entrepreneurs in their business in making wise decisions fast.