After spinning, the yarns are either woven or knitted using various machines. Different types of weaves can easily be produced on the fabric by varying the basic weaves. This content is all about different types of weaves along with the example of fabrics that are made using them. The weave structures are also covered below. So find it out!
Woven fabrics are produced by looms. Knitted fabrics are produced by knitting machines.
Different knitting machines like flatbed knitting machines, circular knitting machines, tricot warp knitting machines, raschel warp knitting machines are used to make fabric.
Different Types of Weaves
Table of Contents
The way in which warp and weft threads are interlaced is called weave structure. Different weave derivatives can be produced from these basic weaves. Without any modifications, the basic weaves are accomplished in loom. Simply, there are three basic types of weaves. They are:
Balanced plain weave
The ratio of warp and weft thread affects the weave structure. Balanced fabric has 1:1 ratio that means each warp thread for each weft thread. But you will find asymmetry in this case for unbalanced fabric. They have more of one set of yarn that can be either warp or weft.
With only two or sometimes in more shaft, balanced plain weave is woven. Each weft passes over and under each warp yarns. A weft yarn is set through the shed and then beaten by the reed. So that the reed can hold the last weft yarn in place.
As plain weave has the 1:1 ratio of warp and weft, there is no distinguishable character remains in it that can specify the back or face. So either side can be used for any purpose as no face and no back issue is here.
As it becomes a regular common structure, you can make it somewhat more interesting. Such as-
Using novelty yarns
Using textured yarns
Different sized yarns
Low or high twist yarns
Yarns of varied count
Cramming and spacing of warp and weft yarns
Characteristics of Plain weave:
Fabric has a finer appearance
It feels harder but smoother also
It possess less elasticity
Maximum interlacement is seen in this weave
Fabric is more prone to crease that are produced with basic plain weave.
Unbalanced plain weave
Unbalanced plain weave has significantly more sets of yarns in either any direction, warp or weft. This makes it different from the balanced plain weave. It can also be woven on two or more shafts. They can be of varied types like:
Warp faced fabric
Weft faced fabric
When we employ more warp yarns than the weft yarns, then warp faced fabric is produced. Again, if having more weft yarns than the warp yarns, it will produce weft faced fabric. Warp faced fabric exhibits greater tensile strength than the weft faced fabric.
Fabrics produced with plain weave:
In this weave, two or more adjacent yarns are controlled by the same shaft while two or more weft yarns are passes through the same shed. Basket weave has a similar interlacing pattern like the plain weave. But it shows two or more warp and weft for each interlacement.
Most common basket weave ratio is 2:2 or 4:4. Don’t confuse that they only have even ratio. They can be 2:1 or 4:2 also.
Characteristics of Basket weave:
More flexible than Palin weave
They are wrinkle resistant
They have fewer interlacement per square inch
Types of basket weave:
Regular basket weave
Irregular basket weave
Fabric produced with basket weave:
Twill weave is the second basic weave. This weave is normally woven on four or more shafts. Each warp or weft yarns are floated over two or more warp or weft yarns.
In this structure a diagonal line is produced. Normally four or more shafts are used, but twill weave can be produced on three shafts. For complicated twill weave more shafts are required.
Twill weave has face and back faced fabric. The face side has more pronounced diagonal line. Whereas the back of the fabric has floating of yarns. Twill weave is two types:
Warp comes to the surface in a greater extent than wefts in this twill weave. If face side is predominated by warps, it will call warp twill fabric. In the same way, if the weft yarns predominates, it will call weft twill.
In balanced weave warp and weft yarns come to the surface in equal extent. Twill fabric has more wefts than warp yarns. As a result, the weight is more. This type of fabrics are heavier than the basic plain weave.
The textured and patterned surface makes it unsuitable for printing. Twill weave fabric is often used for upholstery or apparel especially for denim because of their strength. They have less interlacement. As a result, the yarns can move freely leaving the fabric more pliable.
Characteristics of Twill weave fabric:
Textured and patterned surface
Fabrics are pliable, softer and lustrous than plain weave
Fabrics have better recovery from wrinkles than the plain weave
They have fewer interlacements
The yarns can move freely
Fabrics are heavier than plain weave
Not suitable for printing
Fabrics produced with twill weave:
Herringbone twill weave
Herringbone twill weave structure uses pointed drafts. In this weave diagonal twill line change its direction intermittently. This forms a zigzag line. This is also known as chevron. If the structure is woven in a controlled reverse direction, a diamond twill will produce which is used in apparels and furnishings.
Satin weave is the third basic weave. It requires five shafts to produce. On the face of the cloth, weft yarns are predominant. The warp yarns are scattered as widely as possible. The warp yarns help in binding the weft floats. Here are no two adjacent interlacing. As a result, no line is formed in the face but line is shown in the back of the fabric.
Characteristics of Satin weave:
Strong due to high number of yarns used
Fabrics become pliable
Resistant to wrinkle
Fabric has lustrous finish
Almost all fabrics are warp-faced
Shiny filament yarns are used
Yarns used for this weave have very low twist
Fabric used in apparel and clothing especially in wedding dress, couture wear, drapery linings.
Fabrics produced with Satin weave:
Derivative weave structure
Different types of weaves can be produced by varying the basic weave. They are called derivative weave structures.
Derivative weave structures are produced from the basic weaves. Among a lot of derivatives, the most important ones are discussed below!
This weave can be woven on a minimum of four shafts
It belongs to the open-weave group of structures
Mock leno provides a cloth with a lace or gauze appearance
Intricate interlacing of warp and weft threads are achieved with this weave
In weaving a mock leno, three or more warp or weft threads are interlaced so that they group together in an opposite way to their adjacent group.
Along with other weave structures like plain weave mock leno can be woven.
It can create contrasting opaque and transparent effects in the same cloth with other weaves.
As fabrics is finished with various opacity and transparency with mock leno, they are suitable for apparel such as shirts, blouses and dresses, and furnishings like tablecloths, curtains and cushions.
This weave has two layers of cloth
The two layers of cloth are either interlaced between top and lower cloth or joined at the selvedge.
Reasons for weaving double weave cloth:
To form tube
To produce cloth of different colors on either side
To produce quilt-like effects
To provide a thick fabric or to trap objects inside the two layers of fabric
This weave is used for apparels like jackets and coats that may be reversible (two different colors), and furnishings such as curtains and cushions.
In this structure, warp and weft yarns produce hollow and ridges which resembles cell-like appearance.
Here both the warp and weft yarns float freely.
Pointed draft is used here.
Cotton yarn when used for this structure produces a very absorbent cloth, and is often used for the production of tea towels.
Wool produces a very warm fabric as the air is trapped in the structure of the weave and also the fibers of the wool.
A specialty of this weave is to produce figured fabric
Figured fabrics have visual images on them rather than just patterns.
Damask, Brocade, Brocatelle, Tapestry and others are produced using jacquard looms.
Fabrics produced by jacquard weave:
These fabrics are usually woven in one color
Damask structures have satin floats on a satin background and can be made from any fiber and in many different weights for apparel and furnishings.
Quality and durability are dependent upon yarn count.
Low-count (fine-yarn) damask is not durable because the long floats snag and shift during use.
This fabric differs from damask in that the floats in the design are more varied in length and are often of several different colors.
Brocade structures have satin or twill floats on a plain, ribbed, twill or satin background.
These fabrics are similar to brocade, except that they have a raised pattern.
This fabric is frequently made with filament yarns, using a warp-faced pattern and weft-faced ground.
Tapestry fabric woven on a Jacquard loom is mass-produced for upholstery and other uses.
Jacquard-woven tapestry is a complicated structure consisting of two or more sets of warp and two or more set of weft interlaced so that the face warp is never woven into the back and the back filling does not show on the face.
Upholstery fabric is durable if warp and weft yarns are comparable.
With lower-quality fabrics, fine yarns are combined with coarse yarns, and the resulting fabric is not durable.
Salma Hasin Shila, the author of this site completed her BSc. in Textile Engineering (Wet Processing Engineering) from Bangladesh University of Textiles www.butex.edu.bd (BUTEX). She has a passion for textile technology and love to write about it. She wants to share her knowledge to help the students in their studies and businessman & entrepreneurs in their business in making wise decisions fast.